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  1. 15 de ago. de 2020 · Appendix. : Proto-Germanic Swadesh list. This is a Swadesh list of words in Proto-Germanic, ...

    Proto-germanic Edit (207)
    I ( 1sg)
    you ( 2sg)
    he, she, it ( 3sg)
    we ( 1pl)
  2. Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic eventually developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three Germanic branches during the fifth century BC to fifth century AD: West Germanic , East Germanic and North ...

  3. Those Germanic words listed below with a Frankish source mostly came into English through Anglo-Norman, and so despite ultimately deriving from Proto-Germanic, came to English through a Romance language (and many have cognates in modern Romance languages).

    Germanic Source
    Latin Source
    Frankish * bannjan, * bandjan PGmc * ...
    abandon leave, leave off forsake forlet ...
    relinquish abdicate desert renounce
    relinquere < re- + linquere abdicāre < ...
    PGmc * akiz Frankish * hūrt PGmc * ...
    ache hurt smart woe sore throe wark
    pain agony
    poena < Gk poinē L.L. agōnia < Gk ...
    PGmc * lataz, * lētiz ( Frankish * lat, * ...
    allegiance troth
    fidelity loyalty
    fidēlitās lēgālis
    PGmc * ana + * libą PGmc * kwikwaz
    alive quick (living)
    animātus < animāre < anima
  4. 22 de jul. de 2017 · Proto-Germanic terms that indicate people, beings, things, places, phenomena, qualities or ideas. For more information, see Appendix:Proto-Germanic nouns . Category:Proto-Germanic noun forms : Proto-Germanic nouns that are inflected to display grammatical relations other than the main form.

    • Overview
    • Nouns
    • Adjectives, Determiners and Pronouns
    • Verbs
    • Syntax
    • Sources

    Proto-Germanic had six cases, three genders, two numbers (relics survive in verbs and in some number words like 'two' or 'both'), three moods (indicative, subjunctive (PIE optative), imperative), and two voices (active and passive (PIE middle)). This is quite similar to the state of Latin, Greek, and Middle Indo-Aryan languages of c. 200 BC. It is ...

    The system of nominal declensions was largely inherited from PIE. Six cases were preserved: vocative, nominative, accusative, dative, instrumental, genitive. The instrumental and vocative can be reconstructed only in the singular. The instrumental survives only in the West Germanic languages, and the vocative only in Gothic. The locative case had m...

    Adjectives, determiners and pronouns agreed with the noun they qualified in case, number, and gender, although without a separate vocative form. Their inflection stemmed from the PIE "pronominal inflection", which is used most prominently by the demonstrative pronoun in other Indo-European languages. Like the nouns, they had various declension clas...

    Proto-Germanic had only two tenses (past and present). The present tense descended from the original PIE present imperfective, although there were a few verbs with a present tense that descended from the aorist, in some cases even the aorist subjunctive (which for athematic verbs was identical to the thematic present). The past tense of underived v...

    Not many details are known from Proto-Germanic syntax since the earliest preserved texts are usually translations of Greek or Latin texts that follow the word order of the original text very closely. Nonetheless, some pieces of Proto-Germanic syntax can be reconstructed. The general word order was subject–object–verb: objects preceded their verbs, ...

    Ringe, Donald A. (2006). From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Linguistic history of English, v. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-955229-0.
    Ringe, Donald A. (2017). From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Linguistic history of English, v. 1 (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955229-0.
    • *fōt?
  5. O protogermânico, também chamado de germânico comum[ 1][ nota 1] ou primitivo, [ 2] é a protolíngua ancestral comum hipotética de todas as línguas germânicas tais como o moderno inglês, holandês, alemão, dinamarquês, norueguês, islandês, feroês e sueco. Não existem textos sobreviventes no protogermânico, sendo assim, a língua foi reconstruída.