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  1. 27 de jan. de 2023 · When Thomas Cromwell was accused of treason and executed in 1540 (the same year as he was created Earl of Essex) Rich was one of the chief witnesses against his friend and benefactor. On the 12th June Cromwell wrote to the king: 'What master chancellor has been to me, God and he knows best; what I have been to him your Majesty knows.'

    • Early Years and Family
    • Political Background
    • Move Into Political Life
    • Lord Protector
    • Later Years
    • Fictional Portrayals
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 4 October 1626, the third son of Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth. Little is known of his childhood. He and his three brothers were educated at Felsted School in Essex close to their mother's family home. There is no record of his attending university. In May 1647, he became a member of Lincoln's Inn, howeve...

    Oliver Cromwell had risen from being an unknown member of Parliament in his forties to being a commander of the New Model Army, which emerged victorious from the English Civil War. When he returned from a final campaign in Ireland, Oliver Cromwell became disillusioned at inconclusive debates in the Rump Parliamentbetween Presbyterians and other sch...

    In 1653, Richard Cromwell was passed over as a member of Barebone's Parliament, although his younger brother Henry was a member of it. Neither was he given any public role when his father was made Lord Protector in the same year; however, he was elected to the First Protectorate Parliament as M.P. for Huntingdon and the Second Protectorate Parliame...

    Oliver Cromwell died on 3 September 1658, and Richard was informed on the same day that he was to succeed him. Some controversy surrounds the succession. A letter by John Thurloe suggests that Cromwell nominated his son orally on 30 August, but other theories claim either that he nominated no successor, or that he put forward Charles Fleetwood, his...

    During the political difficulties of the winter of 1659, there were rumours that Cromwell was to be recalled as Protector, but these came to nothing. In July 1660, Cromwell left for France, never to see his wife again. While there, he went by a variety of pseudonyms, including John Clarke. He later travelled around Europe, visiting various European...

    Cromwell has been depicted in historical films. They include Cromwell (1970), where he was portrayed by Anthony May, and To Kill a King(2003), where he was played by John-Paul Macleod. Cromwell is portrayed in the novel The Last Protector by Andrew Taylor.

    Sources

    1. Munden, Kenneth White (1971). The American Film Institute Catalog, Feature films 1961–1970. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20970-1. 2. Waylen, James; Cromwell, John Gabriel (1897). The House of Cromwell: A Genealogical History of the Family and Descendants of the Protector. London: Elliot Stock.

    Beevor, R. J.; Roberts, E. T. (1903). Alumni Felstedienses.
    Chapman, James (2005). Past and Present: National Identity and the British Historical Film. I. B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-808-3.
    Gaunt, Peter (2004). "Richard Cromwell". 11298 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6768.
    Hutton, Ronald (1985). The Restoration: A Political and Religious History of England and Wales, 1658–1667. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822698-5.
  2. 31 de dez. de 2022 · Oliver Cromwell was Lord protector of England, not a monarch nor king. Cromwell died a natural death and was buried in Westminster Abbey. In 1660 he was posthumously beheaded by Royalists and his head mounted on a spike. The whereabouts of this body remains unknown. 1599: 1658: 59 (His head) Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, England. Richard Cromwell

    English Monarch [*]
    Reign
    Burial Place
    Egbert / Ecgherht
    802-839
    Saxon / Wessex
    Æthelwulf (Ethelwulf)
    839-856
    Saxon / Wessex
    Æthelbald (Ethelbald)
    856-860
    Saxon / Wessex
    Æthelbert (Ethelbert)
    860-866
    Saxon / Wessex
  3. 20 de jan. de 2023 · Sir Richard Cromwell died only four years after Thomas Cromwell. Gregory Cromwell had become a very wealthy man, having accumulated vast amounts of land, in addition to the land given to him by his father in 1538, through several royal grants.

    • Treaty of Newport
    • Pride's Purge
    • Execution of Charles I and Abolition of The Monarchy
    • Membership, Attendance, and Allegiances
    • Political Changes
    • Oliver Cromwell
    • Restored Rump, 1659—1660
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    In September 1648, at the end of the Second English Civil War, the Long Parliament was concerned with the increasing radicalism in the New Model Army. The Long Parliament began negotiations with King Charles I. The members wanted to restore the king to power, but wanted to limit the authority he had. Charles I conceded militia power, among other th...

    The New Model Army wanted to prevent Parliament from agreeing on the Treaty of Newport to reinstate King Charles I. While Presbyterian and moderate elements within Parliament were inclined to continue negotiations, the Army was impatient with Charles. Thomas Fairfax, by issuing a command to Commissary General Ireton, organized a military coup in 16...

    When it became apparent to the leaders of the New Model Army that Parliament—then controlled by the Presbyterian faction—was ready to come to an agreement with the King that would restore him to the throne (though without effective power) and negate the power of the Army, they resolved to shatter the power of both King and Parliament. Pride's Purge...

    Although an exact number is unknown, it is estimated that there were about 210 members of the Rump Parliament, or less than half the membership of the Long Parliament (470 members) before Pride's Purge. Though nine new members were admitted to the Rump Parliament, the vast majority were transferred from the Long Parliament. Most of the membership c...

    During the time of the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653), the Rump passed a number of acts in the areas of religion, law, and finance, as well as in commercial and colonial policy. Most of the members of the Rump wanted to promote "godliness", but also to restrict the more extreme puritan sects like the Quakers and the Ranters. An Adultery Act of...

    In 1653, after learning that Parliament was attempting to stay in session despite an agreement to dissolve, and having failed to come up with a working constitution, Cromwell's patience ran out. On 20 April he attended a sitting of Parliament and listened to one or two speeches. Then he stood up and harangued the members of the Rump. This speech do...

    Richard Cromwell, the third (and eldest surviving) son of Oliver Cromwell, was appointed Lord Protector after his father's death. He called the Third Protectorate Parliament in 1659.Along with the Army, it was unable to form a stable government. After seven months, the Army removed Cromwell; on 6 May 1659, it reinstalled the Rump Parliament. The Ru...

    Texts on Wikisource:
    Adams, George Burton; Stephens, Henry Morse (1901). Select documents of English constitutional history.
    "20 April Cromwell's Dissolution of the Rump Parliament". Chambers' Book of Days.(With a shortened version of Cromwell's speech).
    Cromwell, Oliver (20 April 2003) [20 April 1653]. "Cromwell's Dissolution of the Rump Parliament". Archived from the original on 1 December 2005.(with a fuller version of Cromwell's speech)
  4. 26 de jan. de 2023 · In Septem. 1658, he signed the proclamation of Richard Cromwell to be protector, as one of the privy council . December 31 the same year, he was chosen member for the university of Cambridge by an hundred and twenty sussrages, a greater number than was ever known upon the like occasion .

  5. 20 de jan. de 2023 · Thomas Cromwell (/ ˈ k r ɒ m w əl,-w ɛ l /; c. 1485 – 28 July 1540), briefly Earl of Essex, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII from 1534 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king, who later blamed false charges for the execution.